Wednesday, January 27, 2016

A quiz on allergy: Identify if fact or myth.

A quiz on allergy:  Identify if fact or myth.
 Milk, soy, wheat, egg, peanut, fish and meat comprise the most common food allergies.
Dr Abe V Rotor

1. Children who grow up on the farm are at much lower risk to allergy than children in the city.
Uncontrolled sneezing, a common symptom of allergy, may cause embarrassment and even accident . 

2. Infants on the farm have fewer allergies than those who grow up in sterile environments. 

3. Children who grow up with a cat in the house are less likely to develop allergies or asthma. 

4. Very few pet owners are allergic to the animals they love.

5. Children who have been breastfed are less likely to have allergies. 

6. Milk, soy, wheat, egg, peanut, fish and meat comprise the most common food allergies.

7. Most reactions to food are not allergic in nature, but rather intolerance, that is, there is no allergic antibody involved.

8. Babies exposed late to cereal grains have higher risk to cereal allergy, especially wheat.

9. Regular use of “foreign” materials (e.g. nail polish remover, contact lens, metals) can eventually cause sensitivity and reaction to the products.

10. Allergy can induce strong and unwelcome mental and emotional reactions, such as altered perception or inappropriate changes of mood.

NOTE: These above statements are all based on facts.

Thursday, January 21, 2016

Avoid artificial food coloring: it can cause cancer and behavioral problems in children

Dr Abe V Rotor
 Living with Nature School on Blog
Paaralang Bayan sa Himpapawid (People's School-on-Air) with Ms Melly C Tenorio
738 DZRB AM Band, 8 to 9 evening class Monday to Friday

Why food coloring?
Food coloring, or color additive, is any dye, pigment or substance that imparts color when it is added to food or drink. They come in many forms consisting of liquids, powders, gels and pastes. 
People associate certain colors with certain flavors, and the color of food can influence the perceived flavor in anything from candy to wine.   Color additives are used in foods for many reasons including:
Food dyes are like artist's colors. Primary colors come up with various secondary and tertiary colors, including designs, saturation, hues and accents.  Beware of colored candies, birthday cakes, and drinks. They are linked to cancer and behavioral problem in children.   
·         offset color loss due to exposure to light, air, temperature extremes, moisture and storage conditions
·         correct natural variations in color
·         enhance colors that occur naturally

·         provide color to colorless and "fun" foods
Sometimes the aim is to simulate a color that is perceived by the consumer as natural.

The case of shoe dye in tamarind sweet - a personal experience

All of a sudden when answering the call of nature, I was alarmed to see the color of my urine bright red. I cried, Blood!

I tried to compose myself to be able to reach the hospital in the earliest possible time. But what surprised me at the same time was that my fingers were also stained red. I examined the “tamarind sweet” I had just eaten. I found the culprit - jubos, the dye used on shoes!

There are products made to appear like cocoa, coffee, orange, strawberry, grapes and the like, when in fact the ingredients are mainly sugar, artificial flavors and food dyes.

How many food preparations are artificially colored for better presentation? Since that time on I have become more careful with colored foods. Ube cake, anyone?

One test to know if a food color is artificial is that it is detected in the urine. Natural colors, on the other hand, are either degraded by our excretory system or absorbed as a useful nutrient, as in the case of the yellow pigment of corn which is carotene. Carotene brightens the skin, deepens the yellow color of egg yolk, and lends freshness in meat. Carotene and xanthophyll from carrots and squash, lycopene in tomato are useful to our body. They make us glow, so to speak, improve our vision, and fight off cancer.

There are some things to consider about food dyes, specially if you suspect a food or drink to be colored artificially.

Be familiar with the natural colors of fruits and other food products. There are rare ones though. For example, purple rice cake (puto) comes from a variety pirurutong or purple rice. Ordinary rice flour and ube flour produce the same color. This can be imitated with the use of purple dye.

Fruit juices carry dyes to enhance their natural colors. Example, calamansi juice is made to appear like lemon or orange. Softdrinks would look dull and unattractive without artificial colors. Dyes mask natural variations in color and enhances naturally occurring colors. The sparkle and crystalline color of wine may be the result of judicious color blending.
A typical food cart in Manila  Processed foods like smoked fish and ham are colored, usually golden yellow, or deep brown to make them look attractive. I once observed in a factory the practice of spraying a solution of yellow pigment on smoked fish to make it look newly processed and the body fat visible.

Other uses of artificial color or dye are in medicine to protect flavors, and minerals and vitamins from damage by light. Thus multivitamins are usually colored usually with bright yellow which appears in urine. Colored coatings of medicines and drugs are used to monitor prescribed doses in patients.

Cloudifier to make vinegar look like Sukang Paumbong or sasa, or something natural, is actually adding a few drops of milk to a dilute solution of acetic acid. This overnight formulation is popular in the market, because it is cheap, but the truth is that glacial acetic acid is not good to health.

Easter eggs
Cakes and other bakery products may deceive the eye and even the palate. Nothing beats the icing of birthday and wedding cakes. Bakers as artists use colors perhaps more than the full spectrum of the rainbow. I am amazed at how they express their art with the colors of Marc Chagall's stained glass, Pablo Picasso's fresh abstracts, and Rembrandt's sunset and midnight hues. With red, yellow and blue - the primary colors - plus white, there are artists who can create all the colors they need in their masterpieces.

But we cannot mix food with art using artificial colors.

Fortunately we are among the riches countries when it comes to natural food colors and dyes - orange, red to purple from oranges, grapes and strawberry; green from the leaves of pandan (Pandanus odoratissimus) and green paddy rice (pinipig); dark red to black from the fruits of duhat and bignay; purple color from ube (Dioscorea alata); and golden yellow from mango, pineapple, and tumeric (Corcuma longa).

The list is virtually endless, if we iunclude colors from muscovado sugar, coffee, cacao, banana, mangosteen, avocado, nangka, and the like.

By the way, what is the most common source of natural color and dye?

It is achuete or anatto (Bixa orellana). See photo. Achuete is a small to medium size tree introduced from Mexico (achuete is an Aztec word) during the Spanish times. Today it is used to impart or improve the color and flavor of cheese, butter, yogurt, noodles, pasta, macaroni, and cakes and many confectionery products.

I cannot imagine if there is no achuete in batchoy, apretada, azucena, caldereta, paella, kare-kare, arroz valenciana, lechon, and many other dishes.

Let us avoid artificial food coloring. Here is a toast of red Basi wine. 

Allow me to post this news item on food dye published by Philippine Daily Inquirer on the Internet. 
 Artificial colors impart attractive presentation of processed food like bagoong. 

FDA warns vs cancer-causing food dye in candy, ‘gulaman’ ‘bagoong’
By Tina G Santos
Philippine Daily Inquirer

MANILA, Philippines—The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has warned the public about processed food products found positive for rhodamine-B, a cancer-causing substance found in coloring dye.

In an advisory posted on its website last week, the FDA said three of 34 food product samples it tested for nonpermissible colorants (NPC) were found positive for rhodamine-B.

According to the FDA, the samples it tested were taken from ambulant vendors, public markets, groceries and supermarkets in the National Capital Region and Central Visayas.

“Most of the samples were unregistered and noncompliant with food product labeling standards,” said FDA acting director general Kenneth Hartigan Go in the advisory.

Some of the products were icing candy from Cebu Crown Grocery, red gulaman from the Carbon Public Market and shrimp paste (labeled 7C’s) from Robinson’s Grocery in Talisay, Cebu.

“The food processors of the three products are in violation of the FDA Act of 2009 (Republic Act No. 9711) and the Consumer Act of the Philippines (RA 7394) on the adulteration of processed food,” said Go.

Go said the FDA Act of 2009 requires all locally manufactured and imported processed food products to be registered with the Food and Drug Administration.

“This requirement is in addition to the permits issued by the local government units (LGUs) and other government agencies,” he said.

Meanwhile, five other products that the FDA tested needed further confirmatory tests for the presence of NPC Sudan.

Rhodamine-B is a fluorescent dye used as a tracer in water and air flow studies, and in molecular and cell biology studies. It presents as a red to violet powder. It has been shown to be carcinogenic in mammalian models.

On the other hand, industrial grade Sudan dye is not permitted for use in food because it is toxic, carcinogenic and likely contains metals like mercury and arsenic. Sudan dyes are used in shoe and floor polish, solvents, oils, waxes and petrol.

The FDA advised consumers to buy processed food products from legitimate food establishments and outlets.

He urged consumers to report food processors using suspect food coloring additives.

NOTE: In another article researchers say there may be a link between artificial food dyes and behavioral problems in children with certain medical conditions.

Acknowledgement: Wikipedia, Philippine Daily Inquirer

Part 1 - The Tropical Rainforest’s Last Stand

Dr Abe V Rotor
Bohol landscape from the air.

Farming in Chocolate Hills, Bohol.

The Tropical Rainforest could be the biblical Lost Paradise immortalized in the masterpieces of John Milton.

It was after dawn and smoke from nearby homesteads rose with the mountain mist in Carmen, between Davao City and Tagum, when I spotted a company of loggers carrying a wooden cage looking very much like an oversize onion crate. To my curiosity I looked into the cage and found a pair of flying lemurs locally called kaguiang in Bisaya or ninmal in Samal Moro, clinging upside down and cringing from the first light of morning.

Cynocephalus volans Linneaus, as the animal is scientifically called, is one of the rare mammals that can fly, an adaptation they share with the versatile bats. Unlike bats however, the flying lemur can only glide from tree to tree, a pair of thin expandable flap of skin and fur connecting the whole length of its front and hind legs serves as parachute and glider combined.

It was a pathetic sight. The pair was apparently captured when their natural habitat - tall trees that made the original forest were cut down for lumber, and the area subsequently converted into farmland in a most destructive system called swiden or kaingin farming.

Loss of Natural Habitat Results in Loss of Species

Scientists warn us that the loss of natural habitats will result in the disappearance of organisms. This is true to the flying lemurs – and this is true to thousands of different inhabitants in the tropical rainforest, the richest biome on earth.

It is estimated that more than half the species of plants, animals and protists live in the tropical rainforests. According to a Time report, there are as many as 425 kinds of living plants that are naturally occupying a hectare of tropical rainforest in the Amazon. Similarly our own rainforest is as rich because the Philippine lies on the same tropical rainforest belt together with Indonesia and Malaysia in Southeast Asia. There are 3,500 species of indigenous trees in our rainforest.

Imagine a single tree as natural abode of ferns, orchids, insects, fungi, lichens, transient organisms - birds, monkeys, frogs, reptiles, insects and a multitude more that escape detection by our senses. The tropical rainforest must be God’s chosen natural bank of biodiversity. The “Lost Paradise” that the Genesis describes and literary giant John Milton classically wrote – Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained – is undoubtedly one that resembles a tropical rainforest.


Part 2 - Tropical Rainforest Profile

Dr Abe V Rotor
Rainforest serves as watershed, keeps river full and clean, 
creates a cool mini climate in the area, Bohol.

Reforestation rebuilds and increases stand of trees, Bohol

Let us look at the TRF profile like slicing a multi-layered cake and studying its profile. It is made up of storeys similar to a high-rise building. The “roof” or canopy is what we see as forest cover. Here and there are very tall trees called emergents jotting through the monotonous canopy like living towers.

From the air, the view of a tropical forest is one huge and continuous green blanket that catch the energy of the sun and through photosynthesis converts it into organic materials beginning with simple sugar to the most complex compounds from which useful materials are derived - wood, rubber, resin, and drugs, etc. These products are needed to sustain the life of countless organisms and the stability of the ecosystem itself.

From the forest floor, one can see only a little part of the sky, with the rays of the sun filtering through. But now and then, the trees, depending on the species, season and other environmental conditions, shed off their leaves, which can be compared to the molting of animals as they grow. Entire crowns of leaves fall and litter the forest floor. Transformation into humus continuously takes place with the aid of insects, bacteria, fungi, earthworms and the like. And this is very important because humus fertilizes the soil and conserves water acting as sponge and blanket.

This is one of the wonders of nature. Trees in a tropical rainforest have this special characteristic. They are not only self-fertilizing; they are soil builders. Through time, with the deciduous cycle repeated without end, the forest floor – even how thin the soil is, or how solid the underlying rock is – builds up, layer after layer, and it is this process that enables many organisms in the forest obtain their nutrition in order to grow.

Deciduousness allows sunlight to pour over the previously shaded plants occupying the various layers or storeys, which serve as specific habitats or niches. Occupying the lowest part of the forest, which is equivalent to the ground floor of a building, are mostly annuals, ferns and bryophytes. Next are the shrubs which occupy the lobby and second floor, followed by undergrowth trees that reach a height equivalent to the third and fourth floor, lianas and epiphytes which may reach as high as the eighth floor. It is not surprising to find emergent trees reaching up the 200 feet.

How big can a tree grow and for how long? Take the case of the Redwoods or Sequoia found growing in southern California, and China. I saw a tree of this kind in southern Taiwan, recently killed by lightning. The tallest redwood, which is still growing today, is 267.4 feet tall with a trunk diameter of 40.3 feet. It is estimated to be 3,500 years old.

The analogy of the layers of a rainforest with a ten- or twelve-storey building gives us in imagination of the orderliness of nature in keeping the rich biodiversity of the ecosystem.

The true forest primeval – the rain forest – stands along the equator now reduced into a sanctuary of “living fossils” of plants and animals that once constituted the eternal green cover of the earth.

The canopy at one time or another allows the sky to meet the residents of the forest from the ground floor to the upper storeys - something that if you stand among the trees during this transformation you will find a kind of communion that, while it can be explained biologically, fills the spirit with the wonders and mysteries of nature.

The tropical rainforest is a natural menagerie where peace, music, colors, patterns, art and skill are not so well known to modern man. The high-perched artists like squirrels and monkeys are better acrobats by birth and practice than any known human acrobats. Many primates howl with electrifying, ear splitting and blood-chilling sound that breadth the land. Above plummet the masters of the sky – the Philippine eagle and hawks, spotting their preys which may be several kilometers away, or hundreds of meters below – something which our modern spotting scopes can not yet achieve with readiness and precision.

Inside their tunnels the termite workers tap their way and chop the wood for their colony and themselves. Man has yet to learn more about the social structure of this insect.


Tuesday, January 19, 2016

Oregano (Coleus amboinicus) for Medicine, Culinary and Pest Control

Dr Abe V Rotor
Living with Nature - School on Blog 
Paaralang Bayan sa Himpapawid with Ms Melly C Tenorio 
738 DZRB AM, 8 to 9 evening class, Monday to Friday

There is always oregano (Coleus amboinicus) at home, ready to ease cough and sore throat.  I imagine myself wearing a handkerchief around my head, advising my family and neighbors not to take cough drops or antibiotics for simple colds. 
 Two varieties of oregano (Coleus amboinicus): Italian (variegated), and native.

I tell them to pick a young leaf or two of oregano and chew it while taking juice or soft drinks.  Or blanch it, extract the juice, and add sugar and warm water.  It is practical and there are no side effects. And what a feeling!  No wonder the plant's name which comes from the Greek words, Ore/Oros means mountain, and ganos is joy.  Joy on the mountain. 

Pliny the Elder claimed oregano as a remedy for bad digestion.  To Italians, it is the secret of their cooking and making pizza, just as the Mexican make chili con carne.  Our own dinuguan tastes best with this aromatic herb.

On the other hand, I found out that oregano is an insect repellant.  I noticed that mosquitoes, flies and roaches are kept away by its odor. Oregano has essential oil, thymol, which is also a strong antiseptic and disinfectant. 

 Warning: Oregano extract is not advisable for plant pest control, specially on garden plants, either as spray or sprinkle solution. It has allelophatic substance, which means it is phytotoxic to certain plants, causing stunting or death. Never plant oregano side by side with your favorite garden plants like rose, mayana, anthurium and ground orchid.

Plant oregano in pots by cutting, or the whole shoot or branch. It can grow in the shade or under direct sunlight, with moderate amount of water. During rainy months keep the potted plants away from too much rain water. Oregano grows best in summer, but don't forget to water it regularly. A full grown oregano can be made into cuttings which you can grow in individual plastic pots to supply the neighborhood -  as token or gift. It takes a cutting to reach full growth in two to three weeks. ~


Katmag said...

When I was a kid, we used to have oregano in our garden. My lola would always tell us how good it is for cough, and for the whole body mainly. When one of us had cough, my lola would immediately boil oregano leaves and make us drink. I've always loved the aroma of oregano. Now I know that it's not only a cough remedy but it is also an insect repellant.

Angeline De Guzman said...

My grandparents always advised us even when I was a kid to use herbal medicines because as they said, they are more effective. So whenever I had cough, my lola boiled oregano leaves and she let me drink the extract. It is really effective.

Francesca Concepcion said...

When I was younger, my father would always force me to drink the extract of Oregano every time I have a cough but I always refused. Maybe, it is because I don't like the aroma or the taste but as the years passed, I got used to drinking it until I have the initiative to drink it myself for the relief it brings me from a very disturbing cough.

Now, my younger siblings are experiencing the power that the Oregano has every time they have coughs, so I guess our home should will never lose this plant, so I advice every homes to have this plant. Another reason why homes should not lose this because, as I have learned through this article that it's not only for coughs but it can also serve as an insect repellant especially now that dengue is spread all over. ~


Many homes have other useful plants on their backyards, such as

  • Soro-soro, a species of Euphorbia used to control ringworm;
  • Lagundi (Vitex lagundi) is good for fever and flu;
  • Alovera (Aloe vera) for burns;
  • Pandakaki (Tabernamontana pandacaqui) for minor cuts;
  • Bayabas (Psidium guajava) for skin infection and allergy;
  • Ilang-ilang (Cananga odorata) for natural freshener;
  • Sampaguita (Jasminium sambac) for lei and natural air freshener.

Thursday, January 14, 2016

Faces. Beware, Behold!

Dr Abe V Rotor 
Assignment: Write under each, a brief description of the animal, with emphasis on its behavior.  
Faces, faces, happy or sad?
Speak of good self or bad,
Of what intent or hidden mood
Only the beholder knows.
Beware or behold

Green Pond Frog
Red Grouper (lapulapu)
Black Cat is believed to bring bad luck
Bengal Tiger, endangered big cat
Vampire Bat - exageratedly dangerous 

Philippine Eagle, UPLB Laguna

A pair of girafe at Safari World. Bangkok, Thailand
Aquatic iguana, Avilon Zoo, Rizal

Crocodile, Avilon Zoo

Preying Mantis devouring a fly

Monday, January 11, 2016

Beware of the Spiny Caterpillar - Higad!

Dr Abe V Rotor 
Living with Nature School on Blog
Paaralang Bayan sa Himpapawid (People's School-on-Air) with Ms Melly C Tenorio

738 DZRB AM Band, 8 to 9 evening class Monday to Friday

 Close-up of a species of higad that thrives on firetree (Delonix regia)Beware of the higad. If you have touched one, this is what to do.

To remove bristles of a spiny caterpillar (higad or budo-budo Ilk) that got embedded into your skin, light a candle and train the melted wax on the affected area.

Just tolerate the heat and let the candle drops solidify over the protruding bristles, cementing them in the process. Slowly peel off the candle and you will get rid of the multiple tiny arrows.

I learned this folk remedy from Ka Ernie Temado, a co-worker at Paul University QC who saw my swollen hand. I explained how a large spiny caterpillar ensconced inside a shoe which I was about to shine directly planted no less than two dozen tiny sharp bristles into the back of my left hand.

Higad is the caterpillar of a moth, and moths are nocturnal. That's why the higad prefers a dark place to prepare for its eventual metamorphosis - other reasons notwithstanding. The first aid I applied was vinegar. I rubbed off the bristles with pure Sukang Iloko. Acid actually dissolves the alkaline bristles, but only the protruding part. But with Temado’s first aid, you pull off the entire spear without breaking it and in so doing prevent the venom from being injected - and from spreading.

Here is another case about higad that I cannot forget. My youngest son stepped on a molted skin of higad. Caterpillars by the way, shed off their skin at least four times before they turn into pupae. The pupa of a moth has a casing (cocoon) which the caterpillar builds in its final stage, as in the case of the silkworm; whereas the pupa of a butterfly is naked (chrysalis). The cocoon of higad is made up of the caterpillar's own bristles cemented by its saliva. It is also dangerous to touch.

My son took a bath and unknowingly spread the venomous bristles all over his body. We took him to the hospital and the doctor gave him an anti-histamine shot. It took him a day to recover.

Beware of the higad! If you touched one, don't panic. Light a candle. ~

Author shows a spiny caterpillar clinging on its host, a leaf of binunga (Macaranga tenarius).  There are a dozen kinds of spiny caterpillar with specific or wide range of host.  They are seasonal in nature, either in summer or during cool moths.  

 Home remedy using melted candle over embedded spines. Slowly peel off , and apply natural vinegar on the ffected area.  Do not rub.  Seek medical advice if condition is not relieved. . 
 There are at least three instars (caterpillars after moulting) before they pupate (left). Larval stage may last for a month, while the pupal stage usually lasts for a week. Note skin castings, which also cause irritation.    
The spiny caterpillar is the larval stage of this moth.  By camouflage and mimicry this moth escapes potential predators. 

Nature painting and poetry : Loving couples of the featrhered kind

 "Perched up high, love is in the air, while the world goes by, in love and in war."
Details of a painting by Dr Abe V Rotor 

A pair of lovely parrots perched up high,
higher than the flight of butterfly;
aimlessly below many a passerby
 let the world go with a sigh,

Sonorous song this hornbill pair,
 deep in heavy forest air;
love expressed sweet and fair,
in countless ways to share.


Up high above the forest canopy 
into the blue sky free,
peace on earth these doves carry
in white for humans to see. ~

Tuesday, January 5, 2016

English Refresher: Terms given to groups of animals.

... A SWARM of locusts, a NEST of hornets, a CHARM of hummingbirds, an EXALTATION of larks,  a PARLIAMENT of owls, a RAINBOW of butterflies ...                            

Dr Abe V Rotor 

Here is a long list of terms given to groups of animals.

1.    A COLONY of ants (photo)                                          
2.    An ARMY of ants
3.    A STATE or SWARM of ants
4.    A HERD of asses
5.    A DROVE of asses.
6.    A TROOP of baboons
7.    A CONGRESS of baboons
8.    A COLONY of bacteria
9.    A CULTURE of bacteria 
10. A BATTERY of barracudas
11. (A BATTERY of lawyers)
12. A SHOAL of bass
13. A COLONY of bats                                                 
14. A CLOUD of bats
15. A SLOTH or SLEUTH of bears
16. A COLONY of beavers
17. A FAMILY of beavers
18. A GRIST, HIVE, SWARM of bees
19. A CLUSTER or NEST of bees
20. A FLOCK or FLIGHT of birds (photo)
21. A POD of birds (small flock)
22. A VOLARY of birds (in an aviary)
23. A BRACE (a pair of game birds or waterfowls)
24. A DROVE of bullocks
25. A KALEIDOSCOPE of butterflies                
26. A FLUTTER of butterflies  (photo)                               
27. A RAINBOW  of butterflies
28. A CARAVAN, FLOCK or TRAIN of camels
29. An ARMY of caterpillars
30. A HERD, DROVE or DRIFT of cattle.
31. A MOB of cattle (US and Australia)
32. A POUNCE of cats
33. A KINDLE, LITTER OR INTRIGUE (for kittens)
34. A BROOD, FLOCK, RUN or PEEP of chicken 
36. A HERD of cows
37. A KINE of cows (12 cows are a FLINK)   
38. A PACK of coyotes
39. A TRAIN of coyotes                                                                              
40. A BAND of coyotes    
41. A ROUT of coyotes  
42. A HERD, SEIGE or SEDGE* of cranes              
43. A CAST of crabs
44. A CONGREGATION or NEST of crocodiles
45. A BASK or FLOAT of crocodiles.   
46. A HOVER, MUSTER, or PARCEL of crows.
47. A MURDER of crows        
48. A HORDE of crows                                       
49. A PARLIAMENT of owls
50. A LITTER of cubs
51. A TROOP of dogfish
52. A PACK (wild dogs) or KENNEL of dogs
53. A LITTER of puppies
54. A FLIGHT or DOLE of doves
55. A TEAM, FLIGHT or FLOCK* of wild ducks in flight
56. A CONVOCATION of eagles
57. A CONGREGATION of eagles
58. An ARRAY of eels
59. A HERD or PARADE of elephants         
60. A CRASH of elephants
61. A HERD of elks
62. A GANG of elks
63. A CHARM of finches
65. A RUN of fish in motion                                      
66. A STAND of flamingoes                                         
67. A FLAMBOYANCE of flamingoes
68. A CLOUD, HATCH or SWARM of flies
69. A SKULK of foxes                                               
70. A CLOUD, TROOP or COMPANY of foxes
71. A GAGGLE or FLOCK of geese
72. A SKEIN, TEAM or WEDGE of geese (in the air)
73. A PLUMP of geese (on water)
74. A CLOUD OR HORDE of gnats
75. A FLOCK, HERD or TRIBE of goats
76. A TRIP of goats 
77. A CLOUD of grasshoppers                           
78. A SWARM of locusts (photo)
79. A NEST of hornets      
80. A SCATTERING, SEIGE or SEDGE* of herons
81. A CHARM of hummingbirds
82. A BEVY of larks
83. An EXALTATION of larks                                  
84. An ASCENSION of larks
85. A PARTY or SCOLD of jays
86. A TROOP of lemurs
87. A SCOURGE of mosquitoes
88. A PACK or SPAN of mules
89. A WATCH of nightingales
90. An ENCHANTMENT of nightingales
91. A TEAM or YOKE of oxen                                   
92. A DROVE or HERD of oxen  
93. A BED of oysters
94. A SQUADRON of pelicans
95. A FLOCK or FLIGHT of pigeons
96. A DROVE OR STRING of ponies.
97. A NURSERY of raccoons
98. A MURDER of ravens                                                                    
99. A CONSPIRACY of ravens 
100. A HERD, HAREM, TRIP or ROOKERY* of seals 
101. A DEN, BED, PIT or SLITHER of snakes.
102. A NEST or KNOT of snakes
103. A HOST of sparrows
104. A FLIGHT of swallows                                                                              
105. A BALLET of swans
106. An AMBUSH or STREAK* of tigers    
107. A COMMITTEE of vultures
108. A SCHOOL of whales
109. A HERD of whales
110. A ZEAL, HERD or DAZZLE of zebras                                                                                                                           
Acknowledgement: Thanks to Hint and Things Collective Nouns, Internet