Wednesday, August 31, 2016

The Case of the Empty Chicken Eggs

Dr Abe V Rotor 

Soon as I was big enough to climb the baqui (brooding nest) hanging under the house and trees.  I found out that if I leave as decoy one or two eggs in the basket, the more eggs you gather in the afternoon. Then a new idea came. With a needle, I punctured the egg and sucked the content dry. It tasted good and I made some to substitute the natural eggs for decoy.

Dad, a balikbayan after finishing BS in Commercial Science at De Paul University in Chicago, called us on the table one evening. "First thing tomorrow morning we will find that hen that lays empty eggs.”

It was a family tradition that every Sunday we had tinola - chicken cooked with papaya and pepper (sili) leaves. Dad would point at a cull (the unproductive and least promising member of the flock) and I would set the trap, a baqui with a trap door and some corn for bait. My brother Eugene would slash the neck of the helpless fowl while my sister Veny and I would be holding it. The blood is mixed with glutinous rice (diket), which is cooked ahead of the vegetables.

That evening I could not sleep. What if dad’s choice is one of our pet chicken?  We even call our chickens by name. The empty eggs were the  cause of it all, so I thought.

In the morning after the mass I told dad my secret. He laughed and laughed. I didn't know why. I laughed, too. I was relieved with a tinge of victorious feeling. Thus the case of the empty eggs was laid to rest. It was my first “successful” experiment.

In the years to come I realized you just can’t fool anybody. And by the way, there are times we ask ourselves, “Who is fooling who?”

I can “cure” a person who is naan-annungan.

  Dr Abe V Rotor

An-annung is the Ilocano of nasapi-an. Spirits cast spell on a person, the old folks say. The victim may suffer of stomachache or headache  accompanied by cold sweat, body weakness or feeling of exhaustion.

Well, take this case.  It was dusk when a tenant of ours insisted of climbing a betel, Areca catechu to gather its nuts (nga-nga). My dad objected to it, but somehow the young man prevailed. 

The stubborn young man was profusely sweating and was obviously in pain, pressing his stomach against the tree trunk. Dad called for me. I examined my “patient” and assured him he will be all right. And like a passing ill wind, the spell was cast away. Dad and the people around believed I had supernatural power.

There had been a number of cases I “succeeded” in healing the naan-annungan But I could also induce – unknowingly - the same effect on some one else.  That too, my dad and old folks believed.  They would sought for my “power” to cast the spell away from - this time – no other than my “victim”.  What a paradox!   When I grew older and finished by studies, I began to understand that having an out-of-this-world power is a myth.

I read something about Alexander the Great consulting the Oracle at Siwa to find out if indeed he is a god-sent son. “The Pharoah will bow to you, ” the priestess told him.  And it did happen - the pharaoh kissed Alexander’s feet.  The great warrior died before he was 33.


Growing up with Basi Wine Dr Abe V Rotor

Dr Abe V Rotor 

Basi Table Wine - Pride of the Ilocos Region

grew up with an old local industry – basi wine making. Today there are still 18th century jars, which I use in the way my ancestors made the wine for generations.

I remember Lolo Celing (Marcelino) made basi in the cellar, the ground floor of our house made of thick brick wall. In dad's time we had around 500 jars. He was one of the biggest brewers in town in post Commonwealth era, and probably after the infamous Basi Revolt in 1807 when the Ilocanos took arms but lost to the Spaniards who took monopoly over the industry. Many were killed in that short-lived revolt along the Bantaoay River, a river where my brother Eugene and I used to fish purong (mullet) in summer.

Getting drunk at an early age

I was already a farmhand before I was of school age, but dad always warned me not to be an aliwegweg (curious at doing things), the experimenter that I was. One morning as dad went on his routine, first to hear mass in our parish church just across our residential farm, I went down to the cellar with a sumpit (small bamboo tube) to take a sip of the sweet day-old fermenting sugarcane juice. I didn't know that with a sip too many one can get drunk. And that was precisely what made me feel sick, but 1 did not tell dad. He called a doctor to find out what was the matter with me. When the doctor arrived he found me normal. What with the distance from Vigan to San Vicente - on a caleza (horse-drawn carriage)? . But the doctor was whispering something to dad.

Then it happened. Dad had left for the church, so I thought. I went to the cellar and as soon as I probed the sumpit into a newly fermenting jar and took a sip, someone tapped my shoulder in the dark. It was dad!

Imagine the expression of his face (and mine, too) in the dark. I sobbed with embarrassment while he took a deep sigh of relief. Since then the doctor never came again. And I promised dad never to taste my “beverage" again.

Sunset and revival of the basi industry

Years passed. I left home for my studies in Manila, so with my brother and sister. Dad continued the industry until he became very old. By then the demand for the local drink declined as beer and all kinds of wine and liquor, local and imported, began flooding the market. It was requiem to a sunset industry. In 1981, dad died, so with our home industry.

Even after finishing agriculture I did not go back to the farm. So with my brother who also became an agriculturist. Not when you are young and thinking of adventure and opportunities. I pursued advanced studies in biological science. Eugene went back to the farm later, so with our sister, Veny, who joined the Divine Word College of Vigan faculty. But the thought of reviving basi was never in our mind.

For how can a local product sell in a highly competitive market? Foreign products have been flooding the market under the import liberalization program of the government. Other questions propped up, but all boiled down to one possible solution - business viability.

As a researcher I studied the indigenous process of basi making. After I had sufficient materials about the subject I made it into a paper which I read in an ASEAN-New Zealand symposium upon the recommendation of Dr. Romualdo del Rosario, a fellow professor at the UST Graduate School. But the native product needed improvement. It was at first a losing proposition, and I realized I was blazing a lost path. But I did not give up.

Rotor Basi won the Business Incentive Development Award (BIDA 1998). 
Author (center) with former National Food Authority administrator 
Jesus Tanchanco and Mrs Tanchanco.

When I opted for an early retirement from government service in 1989 I found more time with my experiments. The improved product was analyzed by the Food Development Center, a government agency that collaborates with the US Food and Drug Administration. Surprisingly the new basi product passed the European standard for champagne, sherry and port.

But it was no guarantee that it is acceptable in the market. It means that if the product is really that good, it can command a premium price. I began to standardize the product. Soon I was able to establish a consistent level of strength (proof), desired range of acidity, and crystal clear color and clarity. There was improvement in aroma, bouquet, sweetness, aftertaste, among other criteria, which constitute international standards for wine. All these were done in various experiments, often in trial and error method, in others through intricate laboratory procedures. Still in others, only after a yearlong aging of the wine.
Product diversification to fruit wine and natural vinegar 

Lastly, I began working on product presentation. The labels I developed are a series of color photographs of historical places of the Ilocos Region, and the story of the Basi Revolt of 1807.

A breakthrough came after receiving the Business Idea for Development and Achievement (BIDA) Award, and a favorable product endorsement by the Department of Agriculture (MARID). Other than the Ilocano balikbayan, the market expanded to include tourist shops, wine connoisseurs, and even church groups.

I am sure Dad must be smiling up there. Here is a toast for you, Dad. ~

Sunrise on the Farm - Anecdotes of my Childhood

Dr Abe V Rotor 

Farm Life Mural, painted from childhood memories by the author 

Staying put on the farm -  is that all you aspire for?

“Buy me a tractor,” I asked by dad,  “And I will not look for a job. I’d stay on the farm.”

 “Is that all you aspire for?”  My father replied. It was the turning point of my life.  I left the farm and went on to pursue my studies, later joining the government service, and after early retirement, becoming a university professor.

Dad is now long gone and only my sister is overseeing the farm.  One time while visiting the farm, I asked my eldest son, Marlo, “Do you like to stay here and manage the farm?”  He fell silent and I did not utter another word.

I stopped schooling to be with my dad.

I stopped schooling in Manila, so I went home to San Vicente, arriving there on a Sunday at dawn.  Instead of directly proceeding to our house, I dropped at the church through the main door.  In the distance a man was standing, stooping, his nape showing the marks of old age.  I wondered who the man was, and to my surprise I found out he was my dad.  I did not know he had grown that old.  I said my prayers, and left with a heavy heart. 

It was at home that my dad and I met after the mass. He knew it was not yet school vacation, but he was very happy to see me.   I did not tell I saw him in the church that morning. Later I told my plan not to continue my studies anymore because I wanted to be with him.  He just felt silent.

The following morning he prepared our two bikes.  “We are going to Banaoang,” he said in an aura of confidence.  Banaoang is a mountain pass through which the mighty Abra River flows, where bamboo from the hills are sold in quantity. We were going to build a flue-curing barn.

The going was easy at first, but the distance and the uphill part were exhausting.  Dad gave up before we reached our destination.  “Get a rope and pull my bike.  Let’s go back home.” He sat down in the shade of a mango tree. When we were rested we slowly pedaled back home. Both of us were silent the rest of the day. 

I stayed with my dad until the end of summer working in the tobacco barn we put up. I went back to Manila the following schoolyear to continue my studies. I always pass the highway dad and I once took, and there under  an old mango tree, I would be seeing a man resting in its shade, stooping, wrinkles in his nape showing old age.    

Sunday, August 28, 2016

Naturalist-Philosopher: Omar Khayyam

The Rubaiyat, Omar Khayyam's signature
Dr Abe V Rotor
Omar Khayyam (1048 - ca. 1132)
Astrologer-Poet of Persia (Iran)

have a friend, Dr Anselmo S Cabigan, who is an ardent disciple of the great Persian naturalist-philosopher-astrologer-poet – Omar Khayyam.  On lighter occasions in school where we taught, he would run from memory several quatrains from Rubaiyat, keeping faithful to their rhyme-rhythm-meter, and emoting the imagined feeling of the master. It is a rare experience today to hear one reciting from memory an ancient masterpiece, which, had it not been for providence, history may have missed conserving such great work.

How distinct Khayyam’s style is, compared with modern poets, who like in painting, hide behind the curtain of abstractionism – vague and hollow, and often wanting of refinement and naturalness. Rubaiyat, of course has some abstract forms, but intellectual and cultural.

Omar Khayyam enjoyed popularity, but his works showed more of the inner man - his life must have been truly well-spent, not only in the sciences and the arts, but in the fulfillment of life itself in his country though tumultuous in his time, was nonetheless obstacle to leading a romantic and scholarly life, as gleamed from the writings of one of his pupils. (The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, rendered into English Verse by Edward Fitzgerald.) To wit:

“I often used to hold conversations with my teacher, Omar Khayyam, in a garden; and one day he said to me, “My tomb shall be in a spot where the north wind may scatter roses over it.’ I wondered at the words he spake, but I knew that his were not idle words. Years after, when I chanced to revisit Naishapur, I went to his final resting-place, and lo! It was just outside a garden, and trees laden with fruits stretched their boughs over the garden wall, and dropped their flowers upon his tomb, so that the stone was hidden under them.”

Here are the first 15 stanzas or quatrains of Omar Khayyam’s masterpiece, Rubaiyat, a priceless contribution to the richness of world literature, and to think that Rubaiyat was written prior to the golden era of the Renaissance. The quatrain used has four equal lines, though varied, sometimes all rhyming, but more often as shown here, the third line does not. It is somewhat like the Greek Alcaic, where the penultimate line seems to lift and suspend the Wave that falls over the last. The Rubaiyat has an Oriental flair, and distinctly musical so that it is important to read it aloud, preferably with an audience.

I. Awake for Morning is the bowl of Night
Has flung the Stone that puts the Stars to Flight:
And Lo! the Hunter of the East has caught
The sultan's Turret in a Noose of Light.

II. Dreaming when Dawn's Left Hand was in the sky

I heard a Voice within the Tavern cry,
"Awake, my Little ones, and fill the Cup
Before Life's Liquor in its Cup be dry."

III And, as the Cock crew, those who stood before

The tavern shouted - "Open then the Door.
You know how little while we have to stay,
And, once departed, may return no more."

IV. Now the New Year reviving old Desires,

The Thoughtful Soul to Solitude retires,
Where the White Hand of Moses on the Bough
Puts out, and Jesus from the Ground auspires.

V. Iram indeed is gone with all its Rose,

And Jamshyd's Sev'n-ring'd Cup where no one knows;
But still the vine her ancient Ruby yields,
And still a Garden by the Water blows.

VI. And David's Lips are lock't, but in divine

High piping Pelevi, with"Wine! Wine! Wine!
Red Wine!" - the Nightingale cries to the Rose
That yellow Cheek of hers to'incarnadine.

VII. Come. fill the Cup, and in the Fire of Spring

The Winter Garment of Repentance fling;
The Bird of Time has but a little way
To fly - and Lo! the Bird is on the Wing.

VIII. And look - a thousand Blossoms with the Day

Woke - and a thousand scatter'd intop Cl;ay:
And this first Summer Month that brings the Rose
Shall take Jamshtd and Kaikobad away.

IX. But come with old Khayya, and leave the Lot

Of Kaikobad and Kaikhosru forgot:
Let Rustum lay about him as he will,
or Hatim Tai cry supper - heed them not.

X. With me along some strip of Herbage strown

That just divides the desert from the sown,
Where name of Slave and Sultan scare is known,
And pity Sultan Mahmud on his Throne.

XI. Here with a Loaf of Bread beneath the Bough,

A flask of Wine, a Book of Verse - and Thou
Beside me singing in the Wilderness -
And Wilderness is Paradise enow.

XII. "How sweet is mortal Sovranty!" - think some:

Others - "How blest the Paradise to come!"
Ah, take the Cash in hand and waive the Rest;
Oh, the brave Music of a distant Drum.

XIII. Look to the Rose about us - "Lo,

Laughing," she says, unto the World I blow:
At once the silken Tassel of my Purse
Tear, and its Treasure on the Garden throw."

XIV. The Worldly Hope men set their Hearts upon

Turns Ashes - or it prospers; and anon,
Like Snow upon the Desert's dusty Face
Lighting a little Hour or two - is gone.

XV. And those who husbanded the Golden Grain,

And those who flung it to the Winds like Rain,
Alike to no such aureate Earth are turn'd
As, buried once, Men want dug up again.

NOTE: Quatrain XI has a universal theme. This is the key to knowing Omar Khayyam's personality and life's philosophy - doubtless, Dr Cabigan and I agree.
"... and Thou beside me singing in the Wilderness - 
and Wilderness is Paradise enow."

About Omar Khayyam: The Persian astronomer, mathematician, and poet Omar Khayyam (1048-ca. 1132) made important contributions to mathematics, but his chief claim to fame, at least in the last 100 years, has been as the author of a collection of quatrains, the "Rubaiyat."

Omar Khayyam was born in Nishapur in May 1048. His father, Ibrahim, may have been a tentmaker (Khayyam means tentmaker). Omar obtained a thorough education in philosophy and mathematics, and at an early age he attained great fame in the latter field. The Seljuk sultan Jalal-al-Din Malik Shah invited him to collaborate in devising a new calendar, the Jalali or Maliki. Omar spent much of his life teaching philosophy and mathematics, and legends ascribe to him some proficiency in medicine. He died in Nishapur. (Acknowledgment: Thanks to Encyclopedia of World Biography; and to Internet for the photos)

The Animal World on Wall Murals

Dr Abe V Rotor
 Owl - Night Sentinel (Nocturnal) wall mural by Anna Rotor 2000 SPU-QC
Doves - Early Risers:  Wall mural by Anna Rotor, St Paul University QC 2000
Rodents at their burrow's entrance at dusk: Wall mural by Anna Rotor SPU-QC 2000
Red and blue parrots on their perch: Wall mural by Marlo Rotor SPU-QC 2000

Note: These murals have seriously deteriorated due to exposure of the elements, neglect notwithstanding.

Wildlife shrinking fast in the hands of man,
creatures orphaned, man looks up high;
forever gone are their home under the sun,
save some walls of art to remember by.       

Test the power of your third eye and eighth sense of naturalism.

Can you identify these enigmatic creatures?  
Dr Abe V Rotor
 I cling to the leaves on the nether side,
gnawing on its edible part, a parchment I create
to make a shingle out of it which I carry on my back, 
then transfer nearby for the next meal,
and another shingle, until I look like a pagoda 
sans base, moving from place to place, growing,
then I stop and rest; I remain in stupor.
then metamorphose, leaving my domain - 
I am male and I have wings to find a mate;
the female is wingless, she waits for a mate
at her door, lucky for me - for a brief romance,
then she withdraws into her temple
now a maternal nest, and our life cycle is complete.  
What am I?  

Obnoxious I look and smell no one dares to get near,
much less to pick me neither by beak nor tongue,   
for my enemies are few, so my friends - if I know;
you see, if you are ugly and dirty no one bothers you,
like anyone else not excluding some humans;
but in my case Nature designed me this way, 
and she thinks I'm beautiful, to me it is a gift of life;
surviving a cruel world.  I rest now and someday
I'll metamorphose into something beautiful 
in the eyes of humans, so beautiful and dainty
no one will ever ask what I was before.
What am I? 

Answers: Cryptothelea heckmeyeri Heyl (pagoda bagworm), will metamorphose into a moth; Papilio alphenol caterpillar on citrus leaves, will metamophose into a butterfly.  Bothe belong to Order Lepidoptera.

The Dog That Found A Home

Dr Abe V Rotor

Jemille and Ten-ten-ten

It was a quiet afternoon and guess who was knocking at the gate?
A starving dog, a mongrel, and what is there in him to gain?  
Could you spare me a morsel? His eyes moist and sad, begging,
And food we gave, closed the gate, everything was quiet again.  

The sun was setting down, we saw a shadow seeping through the gate,
He is still there, I told the children, and he was knocking again, 
Could you spare me a place for the night? His moaning told us so,
Who are you, who is your master? Silence. I felt a little pain.   

We took him in.  It was a special date on the calendar that comes
But once, and never again, not in a lifetime or generation.
Tenth day, of the tenth month, of the first decade of the millennium,   
And we named this lost dog Ten-ten-ten. What a celebration!  

Home he found and a happy company with us and the neighborhood,
Call his name, you wish luck and fortune, how easy to remember! 
And children tired from school come knocking to play with their friend,
Can we play with Ten-ten(-ten)? Heaven sent a dog to love and share.  ~

Sunday, August 21, 2016

Landscape Paintings and Poetry

 Landscape Paintings and Poetry
Dr Abe V Rotor

All in a day's work and play, AVR

Going home at the end of day the sweetest hour;
all creatures heed to Nature's call;
Humblest indeed our prayer of thanksgiving
as the curtain begins to fall.    
A valley of peace and bounty,  AVR

Not a valley of lament, of sorrowful state,
and never to surrender to death;
it all depends who makes life to such fate,
believing to his last breath. 
Rivulets to streams comb the hills, AVR

 The beginning of the great Nile lies somewhere
on the glaciers of Mount Kilimanjaro;
Hemingway wrote in the like of an idea untold, 
 emerging, converging, to be true.
Downstream, AVR 

I was lost in the middle of a forest 
hidden by fog to its crest;
trees blocked my path, my sight;
t'was a stream I owe my life.

Cliff, AVR

A watchtower of my ancestors I revisited; 
once green and sacred,
now bare and empty, I found it instead,
a history of the dead.  

Angling and loafing, AVR

The fish I caught may be small and few,  
 but I am happiest though;
more than the flowing stream that I knew
many great ideas grew. 
Sitting Boat AVR

Wonder the fisherman at sundown,
his boat  by the bay sits;
to sea the whole night he's bound,  
while the world sleeps
Rainforest sentinel AVR

Stately and colorful like a king,
the cockatoo is lord of the realm;
greet and he will echo your call,
and will follow to the screen.

Thursday, August 18, 2016

Dita, the tallest tree in Manila, a living sentry that reminds us, "Only God can make a tree."

It is home of insects and reptiles, foothold of orchids, ferns and lianas, abode of birds that celebrate life with their young and beautiful songs.  
Dr Abe V Rotor 

Dita (Alstonia scholaris) the biggest member of the Apocynaceae family stands overlooking the sprawling UST campus and its environs,

Older than most structures except the main building, it rises with the tower cross, sharing the lofty height  from afar, on the front and back.  

Scarred by war and by fire it is a veteran of events in history, witness to the university's many activities and celebrations, . 

While graduates pass through the Arch of the Centuries, this tree stands firm and proud; it is a sentry, a guardian, and a symbol, too.  

Its crown is the biggest umbrella on the campus, filtering the sun, the dust and rain; it captures carbon and gives off oxygen in turn.   

It captures the fog into morning mist, and makes a rainbow with the showers, and cushions the sun set into gentle breeze and subdued gray.   

It does not respond to autumn even if other trees lose their leaves and gain a new crown; instead it retains its canopy green. 

It is home of insects and reptiles, foothold of orchids, ferns and lianas, abode of birds that celebrate life with their young and beautiful songs.   

And when it is winter in cold countries, it is time for its pods to mature, popping out myriads of tiny lints like parachutes that float in the air. 

And children run after them like snowflakes, and wish like wishing upon a star -  and strangely lints daintily fall into their palms.  

The dita wakes up earlier than anyone else on the campus, sings with the carillon, and joins the whispers and laughter on the campus.

The day ends just like any day, the campus sleeps - and there stands a silhouette that reminds us, "Only God can make a tree." ~   


Schools or Movements in Development Communication

 Compiled and edited by Dr AV Rotor
 Development Communication is a type of marketing and public opinion research that is used specifically to develop effective communication or as the use of communication to promote social development.

Red Ribbon Clubs Spread Prevention Message
" CHANDRAPUR, India, 1 December 2011- Rushali is undaunted and clearly proud of her volunteer position with the village’s Red Ribbon Club. Her group is working to prevent the spread of HIV, AIDS and oth "

Rushali Gajabhaye,18, (left) is part of the UNICEF funded Red Ribbon Club (RRC) program in Chandrapur District, Maharashtra. RRC's are voluntary village level forums for young people to spread information on safe sex practises to prevent HIV and AIDS.
- See more at:
Purposive communication intended for a specific target audience that allows for the translation of information into action resulting in a higher quality of life.
The improvement of a community using information and technology and the community's ability to maintain the created ideal state without compromising its environment and resources.

It is the voluntary involvement of a group of people in a development activity with full knowledge of its purpose that will allow them to grow individually and as a community.
The process of eliciting positive change (social, political, economic, moral, environmental, etc) through an effective exchange of pertinent information in order to induce people to action.

Development communication extends to include: information dissemination on developmental schemes/projects, communication for eliciting positive change, interactivity, feedback on developmental issues, feedback/reverse communication for eliciting change. On development side, sustainability issues need to be given proper importance vis-a-vis economic development.

The practice of systematically applying the processes, strategies, and principles of communication to bring about positive social change.

The term "Development Communication" was first coined in 1972 by Nora C. Quebral, who defines the field as "the art and science of human communication linked to a society's planned transformation from a state of poverty to one of dynamic socio-economic growth that makes for greater equity and the larger unfolding of individual potential."

Some approaches include:
• information dissemination and education,
• behavior change,
• social marketing,
• social mobilization,
• media advocacy,
• communication for social change, and
• participatory development communication.

Different schools of development communication have arisen in different places.

1. The "Bretton Woods school of development communication" arose with the economic strategies outlined in the Marshall Plan after WW2, and the establishment of the Bretton Woods system and of the WB and IMF in 1944. Due to his pioneering influence in the field, Everett Rogers has often been termed the "father of development communication."
Originally, the paradigm involved production and planting of development in indigenous and uncivilized societies. This western approach to development communication was criticized early on, especially by Latin American researchers because it tended to locate the problem in the underdeveloped nation rather than its unequal relations with powerful economies. There was also an assumption that Western models of industrial capitalism are appropriate for all parts of the world. Many projects for development communication failed to address the real underlying problems in poor countries such as lack of access to land, agricultural credits and fair market prices.

The world bank currently defines development communication as the "integration of strategic communication in development projects" based on a clear understanding of indigenous realities. Institutions associated with the Bretton Woods school include:

• United Nations (FAO),
• the Rockefeller Foundation,
• the Dept of International Development of the United Kingdom, and
• the Ford Foundation.

2. Latin America
The Latin American School of Development traces its history back further than the Bretton Woods school, emerging in the 1940s with the efforts of Colombia's Radio Sutatenza and Bolivia's Radios Minera. These stations were the first to use participatory and educational rural radio approaches to empowering the marginalized. In effect, they have since served as the earliest models for participatory broadcasting efforts around the world.

3. India
The history of organized development communication in India can be traced to rural radio broadcasts in the 1940s. As is logical, the broadcasts used indigenous languages such as Hindi, Marathi, Gujarati and Kannada.

Independent India's earliest organized experiments in development communication started with Community Development projects initiated by the union government in 1950's.
Radio played an equally important role in reaching messages to the masses. Universities and other educational institutions - especially the agricultural universities, through their extension networks - and international organizations under the UN umbrella carried the dev-comm experiments further.

4. Africa
The African school of development communication sprang from the continent's post-colonial and communist movements in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Development communication in Anglophone Africa saw the use of Radio and theatre for community education, adult literacy, health and agricultural education.

5. University of the Philippines Los Baños
The systematic study and practice of Development Communication in the Philippines began in the 1970s with the pioneering work of Nora C Quebral who, in 1972 became the first to come up with the term "Development Communication." In at least some circles within the field, it is Quebral who is recognized as the "Mother" of Development Communication.

Aspects of development communication which the CDC has extensively explored include Development Broadcasting and Telecommunications, Development Journalism, Educational Communication, Science Communication, Strategic Communication, and Health Communication.

6. Cybernetics approach
Another area of exploration for the CDC at UPLB is the aspect of development communication relating to the information sciences, the decision sciences, and the field of knowledge management. In 1993, as part of the then Institute of Development Communication’s Faculty papers series, Alexander Flor wrote a paper on environmental communication that, among other things, proposed a definition of Development Communication expanded from the perspective of cybernatics and general systems theory:

If information counters entropy and societal breakdown is a type of entropy, then there must be a specific type of information that counters societal entropy. The exchange of such information – be it at the individual, group, or societal level – is called development communication.

7. The Participatory Development Communication school
Focusing the involvement of the community in development efforts, the evolution of the Participatory Development Communication School involved collaboration between First World and Third World development communication organizations.

UNICEF Communication for Development 

Communication for Development (C4D) is one of the most empowering ways of improving health, nutrition and other key social outcomes for children and their families.
In UNICEF, C4D is defined as a systematic, planned and evidence-based strategic process to promote positive and measurable individual behaviour and social change that is an integral part of development programmes, policy advocacy and humanitarian work.
C4D ensures dialogue and consultation with, and participation of children, their families and communities. In other words, C4D privileges local contexts and relies on a mix of communication tools, channels and approaches.
UNICEF C4D envisions a world in which people come together as equals and dialogue so that all children, families and communities have access to the information, skills, technologies and processes they need to generate solutions; are empowered to make informed choices, reach their full potential; and participate meaningfully in decisions affecting their lives and realize their rights.
C4D in UNICEF collaborates with partners to harness the power of communication and social networks to make a positive difference in the lives of children, their families and communities. C4D promotes the use of a judicious mix of participatory communication strategies and approaches in order to increase the impact of development programmes, accelerate achievement of global and development goals and enhance the ability of families and communities to achieve results for children and realize their rights.

UNICEF C4D Principles
These core principles guide how C4D practitioners in the organization work with communities, development partners and programme staff. These principles are based on the human rights based approach to programming, particularly on the rights to information, communication and participation as enshrined in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (Articles  12, 13 and 17).

They include:
  • Facilitating enabling environments that create spaces for plurality of voices, promote narratives of communities, encourage listening, dialogue and debate and the active and meaningful participation of children and women;
  • Reflecting the principles of inclusion, self-determination, participation and respect by ensuring that marginalized and vulnerable groups (including indigenous populations and people with disabilities) are prioritized and given visibility and voice;
  • Linking community perspectives and voices with sub-national and national policy dialogue;
  • Starting early and addressing the whole child — including the cognitive, emotional, social and spiritual aspects in addition to survival and physical development;
  • Ensuring that children are considered as agents of change and as a primary audience, starting from the early childhood years; 
  • Building the self-esteem and confidence of care providers and children.
1.Quebral, Nora C. (1973/72). "What Do We Mean by ‘Development Communication’". International Development Review 15 (2): 25–28.

2. Quebral, Nora (23 November 2001). "Development Communication in a Borderless World". Paper presented at the national conference-workshop on the undergraduate development communication curriculum, "New Dimensions, Bold Decisions". Continuing Education Center, UP Los Baños: Department of Science Communication, College of Development Communication, University of the Philippines Los Baños. pp. 15–28.

3.Manyoso. Linje (March 2006). "Manifesto for Development Communication: Nora C. Quebral and the Los Baños School of Development Communication". Asian Journal of Communication 16 (1): 79–99. doi:10.1080/01292980500467632
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4.Avrind Singhal, Everett M. Rogers (1999). Entertainment-education: A Communication Str 5.Flor, Alexander (1993) (Monograph). Upstream and Downstream Interventions in Environmental Communication. Institute of Development Communication.

6.Thussu, Daya Kishan 2000). International Communication: Continuity and Change. London: Arnold.~